Process algebra

Process algebra is the study of distributed or parallel systems by algebraic means. Originating
in computer science, process algebra has been extended in recent years to encompass not just
discrete-event systems, but also continuously evolving phenomena, resulting in so-called hybrid
process algebras. A hybrid process algebra can be used for the specification, simulation, control
and verification of embedded systems in combination with their environment, and for any dynamic
system in general. As the vehicle of our exposition, we use the hybrid process algebra χ (Chi). The
syntax and semantics of χ are discussed, and it is explained how equational reasoning simplifies
tool implementations for simulation and verification. A bottle filling line example is introduced to
illustrate system analysis by means of equational reasoning.