Many technical obstacles to effective innovation no longer exist: today, companies possess global networks that can connect with knowledge from virtually any source. Today’s challenge is to collaboratively transform that knowledge into higher-value innovation. Their book introduces groundbreaking strategies and models for consistently achieving this goal.
The concept of open innovation has attracted great interest from the academic and industrial sectors alike. Despite the ongoing debate, we can see some lack of consistency of its principles. The purpose of this paper is to set out a conceptual reflection on the foundations of innovation and its process and discuss new proposals from the literature on open innovation.
Looking back on human history, we can define different stages of societies. Society 1.0 is defined as groups of people hunting and gathering in harmonious coexistence with nature; Society 2.0 formed groups based on agricultural cultivation, increasing organization and nation-building; Society 3.0 is a society that promotes industrialization through industrial revolution, making mass production possible; and Society 4.0 is an information society that realizes increased added-value by connecting intangible assets as information networks. In this evolution, Society 5.0 is an information society built upon Society 4.0, aiming for a prosperous human-centered society.